“Optimism is denying reality” and “reality isn’t very comforting” said Dr. Ajit Varki, a distinguished professor of medicine and cellular and molecular medicine at UC San Diego, speaking recently with
La Jolla Light.
Sound bleak? Depressing?
As Varki posits in his new book, “Denial: Self-Deception, False Beliefs, and the Origins of the Human Mind,” our unique ability to deny reality may also be the key to our success on the evolutionary ladder.
Varki will discuss his theory and sign copies of his book at Warkwick’s, 7:30 p.m., Wednesday, Sept. 11.
Though scientists have long sought to answer the question, “What makes us human?” Varki said he believes researchers should instead be asking what has stopped even the most intelligent creatures such as dolphins, elephants, crows and chimpanzees —which have demonstrated the ability to form social groups and make tools — from becoming human-like.
The primary human attribute these animals lack is referred to as “theory of mind,” the ability to attribute one’s own mental states — including beliefs, intentions, desire, knowledge and imaginings — to others (or more simply put, the ability to put oneself in another’s shoes).
It is also what allows two people not in each other’s presence to correspond via phone or e-mail.
“There have been some pretty smart creatures around for a long time, yet there’s only one species like humans that can put out newspapers, have phone conversations, act in comedy shows or give lectures,” Varki said. “If I’m a chimpanzee, I’m self-aware … but I’m not truly conscious of the consciousness of another chimpanzee.”
Yet, theory of mind is also what alerted our human ancestors to the ultimate, grizzly reality: our own mortality.
“The first time you get this knowledge it’s very discomforting,” said Varki, who believes human brains likely developed a capacity for denying reality as a means of survival.
Since it is unlikely that the brain would develop something as specific as denial of death, Varki said humans developed a broader capacity to deny anything they dislike, wish to avoid or find objectionable.
“I know many cardiologists who … watch other people die of heart attacks and strokes from smoking and they’re still smoking cigarettes,” he said. “We know what we’re supposed to do in terms of exercise and eating right, and we just ignore all of that.”
In the book, Varki uses the phrase “mind over reality” to express this.
“Actually, what we have is diminished fear responses,” he said. “We humans do crazy things. We jump out of planes, we drive fast cars. … When there’s a tornado in the Midwest, all the animals disappear 10 to 15 minutes early; all the humans come out to watch.”
A positive byproduct: optimism
Once humans obtained the ability to deny reality, the world became a much more tolerable place.